Confocal Microscopy

Confocal microscopes generate 3-dimmensional images at the cellular level, and are used to examine in vivo (in the living organism) the tissue and cells of the lids, lid margins, meibomian glands, or the ocular surface. Confocal microscopes are also used in vivo to detect the presence of demodex mites.

Examining tissue with a confocal microscope provides doctors with precise images of cells that can’t be seen otherwise — with the naked eye or through the slit lamp. Confocal microscopy, in conjunction with other tests and exams, such as meibography, contributes important evidence, through direct observation, for an accurate diagnosis that leads to a patient-specific treatment plan.


The aging meibomian gland: an in vivo confocal study
Villani E1, Canton V, Magnani F, Viola F, Nucci P, Ratiglia R.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
2013 Jul 16;54(7):4735-40. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-11914.
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Clinical in vivo confocal microscopy of the human cornea in health and disease
Niederer RL, McGhee CN.
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
2010 Jan;29(1):30-58. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2009.11.001. Epub 2009 Nov 26.
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In vivo confocal microscopy as a novel and reliable tool for the diagnosis of demodex eyelid infestation
Randon M, Liang H, El Hamdaoui M, Tahiri R, Batellier L, Denoyer A, Labbé A, Baudouin C.
British Journal of Ophthalmology
2015 Mar;99(3):336-41. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2014-305671. Epub 2014 Sep 24.
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