DEWS 2007 Diagnosis Report: Tests

The 2007 DEWS report includes descriptions of 88 tests used in diagnosing and monitoring Dry Eye Syndrome and related ocular co-morbidities. The descriptions are all in template form with the following information:

  • Name of the test
  • What it diagnoses
  • How it is conducted
  • What materials are required
  • Variations of technique
  • If it is standardized (Time of day, Temperature, Humidity, Air speed, Illumination)
  • Repeatability
  • Sensitivity
  • Specificity
  • Test problems

The report provides links to descriptions of each test. The name of the test “rapporteur” is included below in parenthesis at the end of the test’s name.

  1. Allergy: Brush cytology for eosinophils (Shimazaki)
  2. Allergy: Conjunctival Provocation Test. (Shimazaki)
  3. Allergy: Tear IgE measurement. (Shimazaki)
  4. Basal tear volume – Periotron (Bron)
  5. Blink: Forceful blink test with tear film interferometry (Korb)
  6. Brush cytology technique (Tsubota)
  7. Bulbar conjunctival hyperaemia scales (Fonn)
  8. Evaluation of conjunctivochalasis (Yokoi)
  9. Endocrine markers in the diagnosis of dry eye syndromes (Sullivan)
  10. Ferning: Tear ferning test [TFT] (Rolando)
  11. Flow cytometry in impression cytology (Baudouin)
  12. Fluorophotometry (Asbell)
  13. Functional visual acuity (FVA) test (Goto)
  14. Impression cytology, conjunctival (Nelson)
  15. Interferometry: Tear film lipid interferometry (Yokoi)
  16. Lacrimal gland: Salivary and lacrimal gland biopsy (Toda)
  17. LASIK-induced neurotrophic epitheliopathy [LINE] (Wilson)
  18. Levels of evidence, Oxford (Bron)
  19. Lid margin disease: Criteria for classification of gland or lid margin disease (McCulley)
  20. Meibography (Bron; Mathers version)
  21. Meibography (Bron; Pflugfelder version)
  22. Meibography (Bron; Shimazaki version)
  23. Meibography/Meiboscopy (Foulks)
  24. Meibography (Mathers)
  25. Meibometry (Tiffany)
  26. Meibomian lipid chemistry (McCulley)
  27. Meibomian gland expression (Mathers)
  28. Microbiological contribution to meibomian performance (McCulley)
  29. Mixed tests: Schirmer-1 test without anesthesia (Bron; Vitale version)
  30. Mixed tests for dry eye (Bron; Afonso version)
  31. Mixed tests: Schirmer I test without anaesthesia (Bron; Bjerrum version)
  32. Mixed tests (Bron; Nichols version)
  33. Mixed tests (Bron; Pflugfelder version)
  34. Mixed tests (Bron; Shimazaki version)
  35. Non-Invasive Break-Up Time [NIBUT] (Bron)
  36. Ocular Protection Index[(OPI] (Abelson, Ousler)
  37. Osmolarity: Tear osmolarity, freezing point depression (Lemp)
  38. Osmolarity: Tear osmolarity, OcuSense (Lemp)
  39. Osmolarity: Tear osmolarity, Vapor pressure osmometry (Lemp)
  40. Osmolarity: Hamano (Phenol red thread) Test (Dogru)
  41. Questionnaire: DEQ questionnaire (Caffery)
  42. Questionnaire: Impact of Dry Eye on Daily Life (IDEEL) questionnaire (Begley)
  43. Questionnaire: McCarty Symptom Questionnaire (Caffery)
  44. Questionnaire: McMonnies questionnaire (Caffery)
  45. Questionnaire: NEI-VFQ 25 Quality of Life Questionnaire (Caffery)
  46. Questionnaire: OSDI: Ocular Surface Disease Index (Caffery)
  47. Questionnaire: Schein Questionnaire (Caffery)
  48. Questionnaire: Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) (Begley)
  49. Questionnaire: EQ-5D (Begley)
  50. Questionnaire: Sicca Symptoms Inventory (Bowman)
  51. Rheumatic disease: Criteria for rheumatic diseases (Bron)
  52. Schirmer I test without anesthesia. (Bron: Nichols version)
  53. Schirmer I test without anesthesia. (Bron: Farris version)
  54. Schirmer-1 Test without anesthesia (Bron: van Bijsterveld version)
  55. Schirmer-1 Test without anesthesia (Bron: Vitale version)
  56. Schirmer 1 without anesthesia (Bron: Pfugfelder version)
  57. Schirmer I test without anesthesia. (Bron: Afonson version)
  58. Selected collected sensitivity and specificity data for dry eye tests
  59. Sequence of tests: preferred sequence (Bron)
  60. Sjogren syndrome; Direct sialometry (Murube)
  61. Sjogren syndrome: Salivary scintigraphy (Murube)
  62. Sjogren syndrome: Sialography (Murube)
  63. Sjogren syndrome: Mathematical model for SS diagnosis (Bron)
  64. Sjogren syndrome: Hematological tests for Sjogren syndrome (Murube)
  65. Staining: grading: van Bijsterveld schema (Bron)
  66. Staining, grading: CLEK Schema (Bron)
  67. Staining: CLEK staining examination form
  68. Staining: grading: Oxford Schema (Bron)
  69. Tear evaporation test (Tsubota, Goto)
  70. Tear evaporation test (Tsubota)
  71. Tear film: Symptomatic Tear Film Break-Up Time [SBUT] (Abelson, Ousler)
  72. Tear film breakup dynamics [TBUD] tests (Begley)
  73. Tear film breakup [TFBUT] (Abelson, Ousler)
  74. Tear film lipid layer interferometry (Goto)
  75. Tear flow –fluorophotometry (fluorimetry) tear flow (Tomlinson)
  76. Tear function index [Liverpool modification] (Kaye)
  77. Tear Function Index (Toda)
  78. Tear meniscus height and cross-sectional area (Willcox)
  79. Tear meniscus: Reflective meniscometry (Yokoi)
  80. Strip meniscometry (Dogru)
  81. Tear protein profiles (Grus)
  82. Tear proteins other than lactoferrin – tear protein profiles (Willcox)
  83. Tear proteins [especially lactoferrin] analysis (Willcox)
  84. Tear proteins other than lactoferrin – lipocalin (Willcox)
  85. Tear turnover: Fluorimetry (Tomlinson)
  86. Tear volume: Fluorimetry (Tomlinson)
  87. Tear Stability Analysis System (TSAS) (Dogru)
  88. Thermography: Aqueous tear deficiency (ATD). (Efron)